Dangerous cargo is divided into classes according to physical and chemical properties, as well as the types and degree of danger during storage and transportation. The classification of dangerous cargo is regulated according to all union state standard 19433-88, namely:
CLASS 1 - explosive materials that can explode due to their properties, cause a fire with an explosive effect, as well as devices containing explosives intended for the production of a pyrotechnic effect;
Subclass 1.1 - explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products with a mass explosion hazard, when an explosion instantly covers the entire load
Subclass 1.2 - explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products that do not explode in mass;
Subclass 1.3 - explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products with a fire hazard with little or no explosive effect;
Subclass 1.4 - explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products that pose a slight risk of explosion during transportation only in case of ignition or initiation, not giving the destruction of devices and packages;
Subclass 1.5 - explosives with a mass explosion hazard that are so insensitive that during transportation, initiation or transition from burning to detonation is unlikely;
Subclass 1.6 - products containing exclusively insensitive to detonation substances, not exploding in mass and characterised by a low probability of accidental initiation;
CLASS 2 - compressed gases, refrigerated liquefied and dissolved under pressure, meeting at least one of the following conditions:
the absolute vapour pressure at a temperature of 50° C is equal to or higher than 3 kgf / cm (kPa);
Critical temperature below 50° C. By physical state gases are divided into:
Subclass 2.1 - non-flammable gases;
Subclass 2.2 - non-flammable toxic gases;
Subclass 2.3 - flammable gases;
Subclass 2.4 - flammable toxic gases;
Subclass 2.5 - chemically unstable;
Subclass 2.6 - chemically unstable, poisonous. Subclass 1.5
CLASS 3 - flammable liquids, mixtures of liquids, as well as liquids containing solids in solution or suspension, which emit flammable vapours having a flash point in a closed cup 61° C and below;
Subclass 3.1 - flammable liquids with a low flash point and liquids having a flash point in a closed cup below -18ºС or having a flash point in combination with other hazardous properties, except for flammability;
Subclass 3.2 — flammable liquids with an average flash point — liquids with a flash point in a closed cup from -18ºС to + 23ºС;
Subclass 3.3 - flammable liquids with a high flash point - liquids with a flash point from +23° C to +61° C inclusive in a closed cup.
CLASS 4 - flammable substances and materials (excluding those that are classified as explosive) that can easily ignite during transportation from external sources of ignition or as a result of friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical transformations or heating;
Subclass 4.1 - flammable solid substances that can easily ignite from short-term exposure to external sources of ignition (spark, flame or friction) and actively burn;
Subclass 4.2 - self-igniting substances, which under normal conditions of transportation can spontaneously heat up and ignite;
Subclass 4.3 - substances that emit flammable gases when interacting with water.
CLASS 5 - oxidising substances and organic peroxides, which are able to easily release oxygen, sustain combustion, and can, under appropriate conditions or in a mixture with other substances, cause self-ignition and explosion;
Subclass 5.1 - oxidising substances, which themselves are not combustible, but contribute to the flammability of other substances and emit oxygen during combustion, thereby increasing the intensity of the fire;
Subclass 5.2 - organic peroxides, which in most cases are flammable, can act as oxidising agents and interact dangerously with other substances. Many of them ignite easily and are sensitive to impact and friction.
CLASS 6 - poisonous and infectious substances that can cause death, poisoning or disease when ingested or in contact with skin and mucous membranes;
Subclass 6.1 - toxic substances that can cause poisoning by inhalation (vapours, dust), ingestion or skin contact;
Subclass 6.2 - substances and materials containing pathogens that are dangerous to people and animals.
CLASS 7 - radioactive substances with a specific activity of more than 70 kBq / kg (2 nCi / g).
CLASS 8 - caustic and corrosive substances that cause damage to the skin, damage to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, corrosion of metals and damage to vehicles, structures or goods, and can cause a fire when interacting with organic materials or certain chemicals;
Subclass 8.1 - acids;
Subclass 8.2 - alkali;
Subclass 8.3 - caustic and corrosive substances.
CLASS 9 - substances with a relatively low hazard during transportation, not assigned to any of the previous classes, but requiring the application of certain rules of transportation and storage;
Subclass 9.1 - solid and liquid combustible substances and materials, which by their properties do not belong to Class 3/4, but under certain conditions can be dangerous in the fire relation (combustible liquids with a flash point from + 61С to + 100С in a closed cup, fibers and other similar materials);
Subclass 9.2 - substances that become caustic and corrosive under certain conditions.